kutilky, hunter (digger) wasps, Grabwespen

Dryinidae and Embolemidae











families Ampulicidae, Sphecidae, and Crabronidae

This group comprises 318 genera and almost 10,000 described species in the World. Spheciformes are divided into four families: Heterogynaeidae, Ampulicidae, Sphecidae, and Crabronidae. Family Heterogynaeidae is known with only several rare species distributed only in Rhodos Island (Greece), Near East, Central Asia, Arabic peninsula, Subsaharian Africa, and Madagaskar. Family Ampulicidae is distributed all over the World, especially in tropical regions. Species of the family Sphecidae are widely distributed all over the World as well as in central Europe. The most diversified family is Crabronidae divided into eight subfamilies. Species from all subfamilies occur in studied area, except Eremiaspheciinae that live in North African and Central Asian deserts. Species of the family Crabronidae are distributed from southern parts of Neotropical and Australian regions up to northern parts of Holarctic region. Sphecid wasps are a very heterogeneous group, which seems not to be a native group (not monophyletic). The most basal lineage is represented by the family Heterogynaeidae. Its representatives are very small, females are apterous, and males possess wings with reduced venation. Two representatives of recent second most basal lineage (family Ampulicidae) are well recognisable by a transverse ridge on second sternum, prolonged prothorax, transverse ridged groove at the base of scutellum; males are also characteristic by less than seven external abdominal segments. Family Sphecidae consists rather of large species with conspicuous petiolus, which is round in cross section. These species possess also well-developed prothorax with dorsal tubercles forming the postcephalic collar, very long propodeum, and almost always two midtibial spurs. Some species of the family Crabronidae have also two midtibial spurs, but the petiolus is missing or is dorsally flattened. Specification of the subfamilies of the family Crabronidae is ambiguous and varies from author to author. Sphecid wasps are predators or ectoparasitoids of various insects, collembolans, and spiders. They can hunt insect of almost all orders from mayflies to other hymenopterans (the most common are Diptera, Orthoptera, Heteroptera, Blattodea, Homoptera, Lepidoptera (catterpilars), Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera). While some species are generalists using as a prey living or dead insects of any order, others are extreme specialists to one kind of prey. Ampulicids are ectoparasitoids. Species of the genera Stizoides Guérin-Méneville, 1844 and Nysson Latreille, 1796 (Crabronidae) are specialised nest cleptoparasites of other sphecid wasps.

Determination keys: Zavadil & Šnoflák (1948), Balthasar (1972), Dolffuss (1991), Bitsch & Leclercq (1993), Bitsch et al. (1997, 2001).

Checklists: Czech Republic and Slovakia: Vepřek & Straka (2007); World: Bohart & Menke (1976).

AMPULICIDAE Shuckard, 1840        
Ampulex Jurine, 1807         
A. fasciata Jurine, 1807 B M CR  
Dolichurus Latreille, 1809        
D. corniculus (Spinola, 1808) B M    
SPHECIDAE Latreille, 1802        
Sceliphron Klug, 1801         
S. curvatum (F. Smith, 1870) B M    
S. destillatorium (Illiger, 1807)   M EN  
Sphex Linnaeus, 1758        
S. funerarius Gussakovskij, 1943 B M EN  
Prionyx Vander Linden, 1827        
P. kirbii (Vander Linden, 1827)   M CR  
P. subfuscatus Dahlbom, 1845   M EX  
Podalonia Fernald, 1927        
P. affinis (W. Kirby, 1798) B M    
P. hirsuta (Scopoli, 1763) B M    
P. luffii (Saunders, 1903) B M CR  
Ammophila W. Kirby, 1798        
A. campestris Latreille, 1809 B M    
A. heydeni Dahlborn, 1845 B M EN  
A. hungarica Mocsáry, 1883   M EX  
A. pubescens Curtis, 1829 B M EN  
A. sabulosa (Linnaeus, 1758) B M    
A. terminata F. Smith, 1856   M EN  
CRABRONIDAE Latreille, 1802        
PEMPHREDONINAE Dahlbom, 1835        
Mimesa Shuckard, 1837        
M. bicolor (Jurine, 1807) B M EN  
M. bruxellensis Bondroit, 1934  B M EN  
M. crassipes A. Costa, 1871 B M CR  
M. equestris (Fabricius, 1804)  B M    
M. lutaria (Fabricius, 1787) B M    
M. tenuis Oehlke, 1965   M    
Mimumesa Malloch, 1933        
M. atratina (F. Morawitz, 1891) B M    
M. beaumonti (Van Lith, 1949) B      
M. dahlbomi (Wesmael, 1852) B M    
M. littoralis (Bondroit, 1934)   M CR  
M. unicolor (Vander Linden, 1829)  B M    
Psen Latreille, 1796        
P. ater (Olivier, 1792)  B M CR  
Psenulus Kohl, 1896        
P. chevrieri (Tournier, 1889) B M CR  
P. concolor (Dahlbom, 1843)  B M    
P. fuscipennis (Dahlbom, 1843)  B M    
P. laevigatus (Schenck, 1857)  B M    
P. meridionalis Beaumont, 1937 B      
P. pallipes (Panzer, 1798)  B M    
P. schencki (Tournier , 1889)  B M    
Diodontus Curtis, 1834        
D. brevilabris Beaumont, 1967 B M EN  
D. insidiosus Spooner, 1938 B   CR  
D. luperus Shuckard, 1837  B M    
D. major Kohl, 1901    M CR  
D. minutus (Fabricius, 1793)  B M    
D. tristis (Vander Linden, 1829)  B M    
Pemphredon Latreille, 1796        
P. austriaca (Kohl, 1888)  B M CR  
P. baltica Merisuo, 1972 B   CR  
P. clypealis Thomson, 1870 B M    
P. enslini Wagner, 1932 B M EN  
P. inornata Say, 1824  B M    
P. lethifer (Shuckard, 1837)  B M    
P. fabricii (Müller, 1911) B M    
P. lugens Dahlbom, 1842  B M    
P. lugubris (Fabricius, 1793) B M    
P. montana Dahlbom, 1845  B M VU  
P. morio Vander Linden, 1829  B M    
P. mortifer Valkeila, 1972 B M    
P. podagrica Chevrier, 1870 B M    
P. rugifer (Dahlbom, 1844)  B M    
P. wesmaeli (A. Morawitz, 1864) B M    
Passaloecus Shuckard, 1837        
P. borealis Dahlbom, 1844  B M VU  
P. brevilabris Wolf, 1958 B M VU  
P. clypealis Faester, 1947 B M VU  
P. corniger Shuckard, 1837  B M    
P. eremita Kohl, 1893  B M EN  
P. gracilis (Curtis, 1834)  B M    
P. insignis (Vander Linden, 1829)  B M    
P. monilicornis Dahlbom, 1842  B M CR  
P. pictus Ribaut, 1952 B M CR  
P. singularis Dahlbom, 1844 B M    
P. turionum Dahlbom, 1845 B M    
Polemistus Saussure, 1892        
P. abnormis (Kohl, 1888)   M CR  
Stigmus Panzer, 1804        
S. pendulus Panzer, 1804  B M    
S. solskyi A. Morawitz, 1864  B M    
Spilomena Shuckard, 1838        
S. beata Blüthgen, 1953  B M    
S. curruca (Dahlbom, 1843) B      
S. differens Blüthgen, 1953  B M VU  
S. enslini Blüthgen, 1953 B   CR  
S. mocsaryi Kohl, 1898  B M EN  
S. troglodytes (Vander Linden, 1829)  B M    
Ammoplanus Giraud, 1869        
A. gegen Tsuneki, 1972 B M CR  
A. hofferi Šnoflák, 1943  B M CR  
A. kaszabi Tsuneki, 1972   M    
A. marathroicus (De Stefani, 1887) B M VU  
A. perrisi Giraud, 1869  B M    
A. pragensis Šnoflák, 1945  B   CR  
ASTATINAE Lepeletier, 1845        
Astata Latreille, 1796        
A. boops (Schrank, 1781)  B M    
A. kashmirensis Nurse, 1909 B M CR  
A. minor Kohl, 1885 B M    
Dryudella Spinola, 1843        
D. femoralis (Mocsáry, 1877) B M CR  
D. lineata Mocsáry, 1879    M CR  
D. pinguis (Dahlbom, 1832) B M CR  
D. stigma (Panzer, 1809)  B M    
D. tricolor (Vander Linden, 1829)    M CR  
DINETINAE Fox, 1895        
Dinetus Panzer, 1806        
D. pictus (Fabricius, 1793)  B M VU  
CRABRONINAE Latreille, 1802        
Larra Fabricius, 1793        
L. anathema (Rossi, 1790)    M EX  
Tachytes Panzer, 1806        
T. panzeri Dufour, 1841  B M CR  
Tachysphex Kohl, 1883        
T. austriacus Kohl, 1892  B M    
T. brullii (Smith, 1856) B M CR  
T. fulvitarsis (A. Costa, 1867)  B M EN  
T. grandii Beaumont, 1965  B M EN  
T. helveticus Kohl, 1885  B M CR  
T. nitidus (Spinola, 1805)  B M CR  
T. obscuripennis (Schenck, 1857)  B M VU  
T. panzeri (Vander Linden, 1829)  B M EX  
T. pompiliformis Panzer, 1805 B M    
T. psammobius Kohl, 1880  B M    
T. unicolor (Panzer, 1809) B M    
Solierella Spinola, 1851        
S. compedita (Piccioli, 1869)  B M EN  
Miscophus Jurine, 1807        
M. ater Lepeletier, 1845  B M    
M. bicolor Jurine, 1807  B M VU  
M. concolor Dahlbom, 1844  B M CR  
M. niger Dahlbom, 1844 B   CR  
M. spurius (Dahlbom, 1832)  B M CR  
Nitela Latreille, 1809        
N. borealis Valkeila, 1974 B M    
N. fallax Kohl, 1883  B M CR  
N. spinolai Latreille, 1809  B M    
Palarus Latreille, 1802        
P. variegatus (Fabricius, 1781)   M CR  
Pison Jurine in Spinola, 1808        
P. atrum Spinola, 1808    M    
Trypoxylon Latreille, 1796        
T. attenuatum Smith, 1851  B M    
T. beaumonti Antropov, 1991  B M EN  
T. clavicerum Lepeletier & Serville, 1825  B M    
T. deceptorium Antropov, 1991 B M    
T. figulus (Linnaeus, 1758)  B M    
T. fronticorne Gussakovskij, 1936  B M CR  
T. kolazyi Kohl, 1893  B M EN  
T. kostylevi Antropov, 1985 B M    
T. medium Beaumont, 1945  B M    
T. minus Beaumont, 1945  B M    
T. scutatum Chevrier, 1867    M CR  
Belomicrus A. Costa, 1871        
B. antennalis Kohl, 1899    M EX  
B. italicus A. Costa, 1871  B M CR  
Oxybelus Latreille, 1796        
O. argentatus debeaumonti P. Verhoeff, 1948 B M EN  
O. argentatus treforti Sajo, 1884   M EN  
O. bipunctatus Olivier, 1812  B M    
O. haemorrhoidalis Olivier, 1812 B M VU  
O. latidens Gerstaecker, 1867  B M EX  
O. latro Olivier, 1812    M EX  
O. lineatus (Fabricius, 1787)  B M EX  
O. mandibularis Dahlbom, 1845  B M EN  
O. mucronatus (Fabricius, 1793)  B M CR  
O. quattuordecimnotatus Jurine, 1807  B M EN  
O. trispinosus (Fabricius, 1787)  B M    
O. uniglumis (Linnaeus, 1758)  B M    
O. variegatus Wesmael, 1852  B M VU  
O. victor Lepeletier, 1845 B M EN  
Crabro Fabricius, 1775        
C. cribrarius (Linnaeus, 1758)  B M    
C. lapponicus Zetterstedt, 1838  B M CR  
C. loewi Dahlbom, 1845    M EX  
C. peltarius (Schreber, 1784)  B M VU  
C. scutellatus (Scheven, 1781)  B M EN  
Crossocerus Lepeletier & Brullé, 1834        
C. acanthophorus Kohl, 1892    M    
C. annulipes (Lepeletier & Brullé, 1834)  B M    
C. assimilis (F. Smith, 1856)  B M    
C. barbipes (Dahlbom, 1845)  B M EN  
C. binotatus Lepeletier & Brullé, 1835  B M VU  
C. capitosus (Shuckard, 1837)  B M EN  
C. cetratus (Shuckard, 1837)  B M VU  
C. cinxius (Dahlbom, 1838)  B M VU  
C. congener (Dahlbom, 1844)  B M EN  
C. denticoxa (Bischoff, 1932)  B M EX  
C. denticrus Herrich-Schäffer, 1841  B M EX  
C. dimidiatus (Fabricius, 1781)  B M EN  
C. distinguendus (A. Morawitz, 1866)  B M    
C. elongatulus (Vander Linden, 1829)  B M    
C. exiguus (Vander Linden, 1829)  B M    
C. heydeni Kohl, 1880  B   CR  
C. leucostoma (Linnaeus, 1758)  B M    
C. megacephalus (Rossi, 1790)  B M    
C. nigritus (Lepeletier & Brullé, 1835)  B M    
C. ovalis Lepeletier & Brullé, 1835  B M    
C. palmipes (Linnaeus, 1767)  B M CR  
C. podagricus (Vander Linden, 1829)  B M    
C. quadrimaculatus (Fabricius, 1793)  B M    
C. styrius (Kohl, 1892) B M EN  
C. tarsatus (Shuckard, 1837)  B M EN  
C. vagabundus (Panzer, 1798)  B M    
C. varus Lepeletier & Brullé, 1835 B M    
C. walkeri (Shuckard, 1837)  B M CR  
C. wesmaeli (Vander Linden, 1829)  B M VU  
Ectemnius Dahlbom, 1845        
E. borealis (Zetterstedt, 1838)  B M    
E. cavifrons (Thomson, 1870)  B M    
E. cephalotes (Olivier, 1792)  B M    
E. confinis (Walker, 1871) B M CR  
E. continuus punctatus (Lepeletier & Brullé, 1835)  B M    
E. crassicornis (Spinola, 1808)    M EX  
E. dives (Lepeletier & Brullé, 1835)  B M    
E. fossorius (Linnaeus, 1758)  B M CR  
E. guttatus (Vander Linden, 1829)  B M EN  
E. lapidarius (Panzer, 1804)  B M    
E. lituratus (Panzer, 1804)  B M CR  
E. meridionalis (A. Costa, 1871)   M    
E. nigritarsus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1841)    M EX  
E. rubicola (Dufour & Perris, 1840)  B M    
E. ruficornis (Zetterstedt, 1838)  B M    
E. rugifer (Dahlbom, 1845)  B M CR  
E. sexcinctus (Fabricius, 1775)  B M VU  
E. schlettereri (Kohl, 1888)  B M EX  
Entomognathus Dahlbom, 1844        
E. brevis (Vander Linden, 1829)  B M    
E. dentifer (Noskiewicz, 1929)  B M EX  
Lestica Billberg, 1820        
L. alata (Panzer, 1797)  B M EN  
L. clypeata (Schreber, 1759)  B M    
L. subterranea (Fabricius, 1775 B M VU  
Lindenius Lepeletier & Brullé, 1835        
L. albilabris (Fabricius, 1793)  B M    
L. laevis A. Costa, 1871  B   CR  
L. panzeri (Vander Linden, 1829)  B M    
L. pygmaeus armatus (Vander Linden, 1829)  B M VU  
Rhopalum Stephens, 1829        
R. austriacum (Kohl, 1899)    M CR  
R. clavipes (Linnaeus, 1758)  B M VU  
R. coarctatum (Scopoli, 1763)  B M    
R. gracile Wesmael, 1852 B M CR  
Tracheliodes A. Morawitz, 1866        
T. curvitarsis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1841)    M CR  
T. varus (Panzer, 1799)   M    
MELLININAE Latreille, 1802        
Mellinus Fabricius, 1790        
M. arvensis (Linnaeus, 1758)  B M    
M. crabroneus (Thunberg, 1791) B M EX  
BEMBICINAE Latreille, 1802        
Alysson Panzer, 1806        
A. ratzeburgi Dahlbom, 1843  B M EX  
A. spinosus (Panzer, 1801) B M    
A. tricolor Lepeletier & Serville, 1825    M EX  
Didineis Wesmael, 1852        
D. lunicornis (Fabricius, 1798)  B M    
D. wuestneii Handlirsch, 1888    M CR  
Brachystegus A. Costa, 1859        
B. scalaris Illiger, 1807  B M EX  
Nysson Latreille, 1796        
N. dimidiatus Jurine, 1807  B M    
N. hrubanti Balthasar, 1972    M EX  
N. interruptus (Fabricius, 1798)  B M EX  
N. maculosus (Gmelin, 1790) B M VU  
N. niger Chevrier, 1868  B M EN  
N. quadriguttatus Spinola, 1808  B   EX  
N. spinosus (J. Förster, 1771)  B M    
N. tridens Gerstaecker, 1867  B M EN  
N. trimaculatus (Rossi, 1790)  B M    
Argogorytes Ashmead, 1899        
A. fargeii (Shuckard, 1837)  B M CR  
A. mystaceus (Linnaeus, 1761)  B M EN  
Gorytes Latreille, 1804        
G. albidulus (Lepeletier , 1832)  B M EX  
G. fallax Handlirsch, 1888  B M EN  
G. laticinctus (Lepeletier , 1832)  B M    
G. pleuripunctatus (A. Costa, 1859)    M EX  
G. procrustes Handlirsch, 1888    M EX  
G. quadrifasciatus (Fabricius, 1804)  B M EX  
G. quinquecinctus (Fabricius, 1793)  B M    
G. quinquefasciatus (Panzer, 1798)  B M EX  
Harpactus Shuckard, 1837        
H. affinis (Spinola, 1808)  B M VU  
H. elegans (Lepeletier , 1832)  B M    
H. formosus (Jurine, 1807)  B   CR  
H. laevis (Latreille, 1792)  B M    
H. lunatus (Dahlbom, 1832)  B M VU  
H. moravicus (Šnoflák, 1943)    M CR  
H. sareptanus (Handlirsch, 1888)    M CR  
H. tumidus (Panzer, 1801)  B M VU  
Hoplisoides Gribodo, 1884        
H. craverii (A. Costa, 1869)    M EX  
H. latifrons (Spinola, 1808)    M EX  
H. punctuosus (Eversmann, 1849)  B M EX  
Lestiphorus Lepeletier, 1832        
L. bicinctus (Rossi, 1794)  B M EN  
L. bilunulatus A. Costa, 1869    M EX  
Bembecinus A. Costa, 1859        
B. hungaricus (Frivaldszky, 1877)  B M EN  
B. tridens (Fabricius, 1781)  B M VU  
Stizus Latreille, 1802        
S. perrisi Dufour, 1838  B M CR  
Bembix Fabricius, 1775        
B. rostrata (Linnaeus, 1758)  B M CR  
B. tarsata Latreille, 1809 B M CR  
PHILANTHINAE Latreille, 1802        
Philanthus Fabricius, 1790        
P. coronatus (Thunberg, 1784)   M EX  
P. triangulum (Fabricius, 1775)  B M    
P. venustus (Rossi, 1790)    M EX  
Cerceris Latreille, 1802        
C. albofasciata (Rossi, 1790)    M    
C. arenaria (Linnaeus, 1758)  B M VU  
C. flavilabris (Fabricius, 1793)  B M CR  
C. hortivaga Kohl, 1880  B M CR  
C. interrupta (Panzer, 1799)  B M EN  
C. quadricincta (Panzer, 1799)  B M CR  
C. quadrifasciata (Panzer, 1799)  B M VU  
C. quinquefasciata (Rossi, 1792)  B M    
C. rubida (Jurine, 1807)    M CR  
C. ruficornis (Fabricius, 1793)  B M CR  
C. rybyensis (Linnaeus, 1771)  B M    
C. sabulosa sabulosa (Panzer, 1799)  B M    
C. sabulosa dahlbomi Beaumont, 1950 B   VU  



BALTHASAR V. 1972: Grabwespen – Sphecoidea. Fauna ČSSR, Vol. 20. Academia, Praha, 471 pp.

BITSCH J., BARBIER Y., GAYUBO S. F., SCHMIDT K. & OHL M. 1997: Hyménoptères Sphecidae d’Europe occidentale. Volume 2. Faune de France et régions limitrophes. Vol. 82. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles, Paris, 429 pp.

BITSCH J., DOLLFUSS H., BOUČEK Z., SCHMIDT K., SCHMID-EGGER C., GAYUBO S. F., ANTROPOV A. V. & BARBIER Y. 2001: Hyménoptères Sphecidae d’Europe occidentale. Vol 3. Faune de France et régions limitrophes. Vol. 86. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles, Paris, 459 pp.

BITSCH J. & LECLERCQ J. 1993: Hyménoptères Sphecidae d‘Europe occidentale. Volume 1. Généralités – Crabroninae. Faune de France et régions limitrophes. Vol. 79. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles, Paris, 325 pp.

BOHART R. M. & MENKE A. S. 1976: Sphecid Wasps of the World. A generic revision. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, ix + 695 pp.

DOLLFUSS H. 1991: Bestimmungsschlüssel der Grabwespen Nord- und Zentraleuropas. Stapfia 24: 7-246.

VEPŘEK D. & STRAKA J. 2007: Apoidea: Spheciformes (kutilky). Pp. 191-239. In: BOGUSCH P., STRAKA J. & KMENT P. (eds.): Annotated checklist of the Aculeata (Hymenoptera) of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Komentovaný seznam žahadlových blanokřídlých (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) České republiky a Slovenska. Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, Supplementum 11: 1-300. 

ZAVADIL V. & ŠNOFLÁK J. 1948: Kutilky (Sphecidae) Československé republiky. Entomologické příručky Entomologických listů 13. Entomologické listy, Vyškov, 179 pp.