Family: mutillidae

kodulkovití, velvet ants, Ameisenwespen

Dryinidae and Embolemidae










This family includes 210 genera and about 3700 described species distributed in all zoogeographic regions but predominantly in tropical and subtropical zone. The family is divided into 10 subfamilies, 5 of them occurring also in central Europe. It represents one of the most numerous groups of insects within the superfamily Vespoidea. About 150 species occur in Europe. As termophilous insects living on sandy sites or southern parts of hills, most of the species have their northern border of distribution in the Czech Republic or Slovakia. Typical mutillid females are wingless with thorax not divided; only members of the subfamily Myrmosinae have their thorax divided by a carina into two parts: prothorax and mesothorax together with the metanotum. Myrmillinae do not have any synapomorphy, they are most related with the most numerous subfamily Mutillinae, but differ from them in following characters: shape of eyes, formation of scutellar ridges and tendency of males to be apterous. Both these groups share together several characters, i.e. they have concave mesopleurae and propodeum wider than mesonotum. Sphaeropthalminae and Dasylabrinae are represented in central Europe with one and two species respectively. Members of these two related groups are typical with narrow petiolus in males and posteriorly narrowed thorax in females. Females of mutillids spend most of the daytime in burrows in ground or under grass turfs. They are parasitoids in nests of various solitary and social Hymenoptera.

So far 16 species are known from the Czech Republic (7 from Bohemia, 16 from Moravia).

Determination keys: central Europe: Bouček & Šnoflák (1947), Lelej & Schmid-Egger (2005), Bogusch (2006); the Palaearctics: Lelej (1985).

Checklists: Czech Republic and Slovakia: Bogusch (2006, 2007); Palaearctis: Lelej (2002).

MUTILLIDAE Latreille, 1802        
MYRMOSINAE Fox, 1894        
Myrmosa Latreille, 1796         
M. atra Panzer, 1801  B M LC  
Paramyrmosa de Saussure, 1880         
P. brunnipes (Lepeletier, 1845)    M EN  
MYRMILLINAE Bischoff, 1920        
Myrmilla Wesmael, 1851         
M. calva calva (Villers, 1789)  B M LC  
M. mutica (E. André, 1903)   M CR  
MUTILLINAE Latreille, 1802        
MUTILLINI Latreille, 1802        
Mutilla Linnaeus, 1758         
M. europaea Linnaeus, 1758  B M LC  
M. marginata Baer, 1848  B M LC  
Ronisia A. Costa, 1858         
R. brutia brutia (Petagna, 1787)    M EX  
SMICROMYRMINI Bischoff, 1920        
Nemka Lelej, 1985        
N. viduata viduata (Pallas, 1773)    M EX  
Physetopoda Schuster, 1949         
P. daghestanica (Radoszkowski, 1885)   M CR  
P. halensis (Fabricius, 1787)  B M LC  
P. scutellaris (Latreille, 1792)   M CR  
Smicromyrme Thomson, 1870         
S. rufipes (Fabricius, 1787)  B M LC  
S. sicana (De Stefani, 1887) B M CR  
DASYLABRINAE Skorikov, 1935        
Dasylabris Radoszkowski, 1885         
D. maura maura (Linnaeus, 1758)    M CR  
D. regalis (Fabricius, 1793)    M CR  



BOGUSCH P. 2006: The velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) of the Czech Republic and Slovakia: an identification key and annotated checklist. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Biologicae 91: 103-148.

BOGUSCH P. 2007: Vespoidea: Mutillidae (kodulkovití). Pp. 93-104. In: BOGUSCH P., STRAKA J. & KMENT P. (eds.): Annotated checklist of the Aculeata (Hymenoptera) of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Komentovaný seznam žahadlových blanokřídlých (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) České republiky a Slovenska. Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, Supplementum 11: 1-300.

BOUČEK Z. & ŠNOFLÁK J. 1957: Čeleď Kodulkovití – Mutillidae. Pp. 316-319. In: KRATOCHVÍL J. (ed.): Klíč zvířeny ČSR. Díl II. Nakladatelství Československé akademie věd, Praha, 748 pp (in Czech).

LELEJ A. S. 1985: Osy – nemki fauny SSSR i sopredel’nykh stran. [Mutillidae (Hymenoptera) of the USSR and neighbouring countries]. Nauka, Leningrad, 268 pp (in Russian).

LELEJ A. S. 2002: Catalogue of the Mutillidae (Hymenoptera) of the Palaearctic region. Dalnauka, Vladivostok, 171 pp.

LELEJ A. S. & SCHMID-EGGER Ch. 2005: The velvet ants (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae) of Central Europe. Linzer Biologische Beiträge 37: 1005-1043.