lapkovití, dryinids, Zikadenwespen
Dryinidae and Embolemidae
is a cosmopolitan family including 41 genera and almost 1500 species
classified in eleven subfamilies, five subfamilies of which (Aphelopinae,
Anteoninae, Bocchinae, Dryininae, and Gonatopodinae) also occur in the
Czech Republic and Slovakia. The adults are small to medium-size, usually
black or brown coloured insects, with 10-segmented antennae in both sexes
and usually chelate fore tarsi (except Aphelopinae). Females are often
brachypterous or apterous and ant-like in appearence and behaviour. The
protarsus of both sexes is modified by an enlargment of one claw and a
lateral expansion of the fifth tarsomere. Adults
are active from April to September, univoltine or bivoltine, overwintering
in pupal or praepupal stage. Males live only a few days, do not feed or
only on sugar solutions, females feed on sugar solutions and haemolymph
and tissues of their hosts, grasping them with their chelae and making
them wounds. The prey may die or survive, according to the severity of its
wounds. Host-feeding is absent only in the non-chelate Aphelopinae.
Dryinids are parasitoids of nymphs or adults of planthoppers (Fulgoromorpha)
and leafhoppers (Cicadomorpha).
38 species are known from the Czech Republic (33 from Bohemia, 34 from
Europe: Ponomarenko (1978), Olmi
Czech Republic and Slovakia: Macek
(2007), Germany: Olmi & Rond (2001).
are a widespread family, including three genera and 39 species. Adults are
usually dull black or brown, sexually dimorphic with males always
macropterous and females macropterous, brachypterous or apterous, with an
unmodified protarsus. Little is known of their ontogeny and ecology, but a
Nearctic species has been reared from nymphs of Achilidae (Fulgoromorpha)
feeding on subcortical fungi with the larva developing in a similar manner
to those of Dryinidae. In the Palaearctic region, brachypterous females
occur in soil, ant nests, in burrows of small mammals, and also hibernate
in these places. The adults are frequently observed in autumn and early
spring after the hibernation. Only the species Embolemus ruddii Westwood,
1833 occurs also in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
J. 2007: Chrysidoidea: Dryinidae (lapkovití). Pp. 65-84. In: BOGUSCH P.,
STRAKA J. & KMENT P. (eds.): Annotated checklist of the Aculeata
(Hymenoptera) of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Komentovaný seznam žahadlových
blanokřídlých (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) České republiky a Slovenska. Acta
Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, Supplementum 11:
M. 1994: The Dryinidae and Embolemidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) of
Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 30: 1-100.
M. 1999: Dryinidae – Embolemidae. Hymenoptera. Fauna d’Italia 37:
M. & DE ROND J. 2001: Dryinidae. Pp. 115-116. In: DATHE H. H., TAEGER
A. & BLANK S. M. (eds.): Verzeichnis der Hautfl ügler Deutschlands.
Entomofauna Germanica. Band 4. Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte,
Beiheft 7: 1-178.
N. G. 1978: Dryinidae. Pp. 16-27. In: MEDVEDEV G. S. (ed.): Opredeliteľ
nasekomykh evropeyskoy chasti SSSR. Tom III. Pereponchatokrylye –
vtoraya chasť. [Key to the insects of the European part of the
Soviet Union. Vol. III. Hymenoptera. Part II.]. Nauka, Leningrad, 738
pp (in Russian).